Japanese Encephalitis: A Brief Review on Indian Perspectives

Reshma Kulkarni, Gajanan N. Sapkal*, Himanshu Kaushal, Devendra T. Mourya
ICMR-National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Pune-411001, India

© 2018 Kulkarni et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Pune-411001, India; Tel: +912026006332; E-mail:



Japanese encephalitis (JE) is recently declared as a notifiable disease in India due to its expanding geographical distribution. The disease notification facilitates effective implementation of preventive measures and case management.


JE is a vector-borne disease that can be prevented by vaccine administration. It is caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), belonging to family Flaviviridae. Amongst the known etiological viral encephalitis agents, it is one of the leading viral agents of acute encephalitis syndrome in many Asian countries where it is identified to cause substantial morbidity and mortality as well as disability. Globally, it is responsible for approximately 68,000 clinical cases every year.


In the absence of antivirals, patients are given supportive treatment to relieve and stabilize. Amongst available control strategies; vector control is resource intensive while animal and human vaccination are the most effective tool against the disease. This review highlights recent progress focusing challenges with diagnosis and prophylactic interventions.

Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus, Notifiable disease, Vector-borne disease, Diagnosis, Prophylactics, India.