REVIEW ARTICLE


Exosome Biogenesis and Biological Function in Response to Viral Infections



Brennetta J. Crenshaw1, Linlin Gu2, Brian Sims3, Qiana L. Matthews1, *
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA
2 Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy & Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
3 Departments of Pediatrics and Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, Division of Neonatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA


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© 2018 Crenshaw et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, 36104 AL, USA; Tel: 334-229-8449; E-mail:qmatthews@alasu.edu


Abstract

Introduction:

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that originate as intraluminal vesicles during the process of multivescular body formation. Exosomes mediate intercellular transfer of functional proteins, lipids, and RNAs. The investigation into the formation and role of exosomes in viral infections is still being elucidated. Exosomes and several viruses share similar structural and molecular characteristics.

Explanation:

It has been documented that viral hijacking exploits the exosomal pathway and mimics cellular protein trafficking. Exosomes released from virus-infected cells contain a variety of viral and host cellular factors that are able to modify recipient host cell responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes are crucial components in the pathogenesis of virus infection. Exosomes also allow the host to produce effective immunity against pathogens by activating antiviral mechanisms and transporting antiviral factors between adjacent cells.

Conclusion:

Given the ever-growing roles and importance of exosomes in both host and pathogen response, this review will address the impact role of exosome biogenesis and composition after DNA, RNA virus, on Retrovirus infections. This review also will also address how exosomes can be used as therapeutic agents as well as a vaccine vehicles.

Keywords: Exosome, Biogenesis, Viral infection, Extracellular vesicles, RNAs, DNA.