REVIEW ARTICLE


The Quest for Materials-Based Hydrogels with Antimicrobial and Antiviral Potentialities Alternate Title: Materials-Based Hydrogels Antimicrobial and Antiviral



Hafiz M. N. Iqbal*
Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L., CP 64849, Mexico


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© 2018 Hafiz M. N. Iqbal.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L., CP 64849, Mexico; Tel: +52 81 8358 2000; E-mails: hafiz.iqbal@my.westminster.ac.uk, hafiz.iqbal@itesm.mx


Abstract

In recent years, the Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) or Multidrug Resistance (MDR) and viral infections have become serious health issues, globally. Finally, after decades of negligence, the AMR/MDR and viral infection issues have now captured a worldwide attention of the global leaders, public health community, legalization authorities, academia, research-based organizations, and medicinal sector of the modern world, alike. Aiming to resolve these issues, various methodological approaches have been exploited, in the past several years. Among them, biomaterials-based therapeutic hydrogels are of supreme interests for an enhanced and efficient delivery in the current biomedical sector. Depending on the regulatory authorities and practices, the antibiotics consumption was expedited than ever before driven by rising and increasing access, across the globe. Though the emergence of AMR/MDR in microorganisms and emergence/reemergence of viral infections are considered as a natural phenomenon, however, these concerning issues have been driven by those mentioned above faulty human behavior. In this context, many scientists, around the globe, are working at wider spectrum to resolve this problematic issue, efficiently. A proper understanding of biological mechanisms is essential to combat this global threat to the living beings. In this review, an effort has been made to highlight the potent features of materials based hydrogels possessing antimicrobial and antiviral potentialities. The information is also given on the potential research activities, and possible mechanisms of actions of hydrogels are discussed with a closeup look at the future recommendations.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Hydrogels, Biomedical applications, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, Polymeric network.