Oncoviruses and Pathogenic MicroRNAs in Humans
Yoichi Robertus Fujii*
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2009
First Page: 37
Last Page: 51
Publisher Id: TOVJ-3-37
Article History:Received Date: 5/3/2009
Revision Received Date: 19/3/2009
Acceptance Date: 24/3/2009
Electronic publication date: 7/5/2009
Collection year: 2009
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/), which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
For disease prognosis, the functional significance of the oncoviral integration locus in oncogenesis has remained enigmatic. The locus encodes several transcripts without protein products, but microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified from a common oncoviral integration locus. miRNA is an endogenous, non-coding small RNA by which gene expression is suppressed. Although miRNA genes, such as let-7 in the nematode, have orthologs among animals, the relationship between miRNAs and tumorigenesis or tumor suppression has been mainly discovered in several human cancers. On the contrary, this review clearly demonstrates the potential for human tumorigenesis of both miRNA genes from oncoviral integration sites and other cellular onco-microRNA genes, and we conclude that alteration of the miRNA profile of cells can be defined as tumorigenic or tumor suppressive. Thus, we explain here that virally-pathogenic miRNAs could also be partly responsible for oncogenesis or oncogene suppression to confirm’ the RNA wave’, with the miRNAs hypothesized as a mobile and functional genetic element.