Therapeutic Vaccines Against Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

Angel Cid-Arregui*
Translational Immunology Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 4268
Abstract HTML Views: 1278
PDF Downloads: 310
Total Views/Downloads: 5856
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1133
Abstract HTML Views: 734
PDF Downloads: 191
Total Views/Downloads: 2058

© Angel Cid-Arregui; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Translational Immunology Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; E-mail:


Cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are linked to infection by a subset of so-called “highrisk” human papillomavirus types, which are estimated to infect nearly four hundred million women worldwide. Two prophylactic vaccines have been commercialized recently targeting HPV16 and 18, the most prevalent viral types found in cervical cancer, which operate through induction of capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, in patients with persistent infection these vaccines have not been found to protect against progression to neoplasia. Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic vaccines targeting nonstructural early viral proteins. Among these, E6 and E7 are the preferred targets, since they are essential for induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype and are constitutively expressed by the transformed epithelial cells. Here are reviewed the most relevant potential vaccines based on HPV early antigens that have shown efficacy in preclinical models and that are being tested in clinical studies, which should determine their therapeutic capacity for eradicating HPV-induced premalignant and malignant lesions and cure cervical cancer.

Keywords: HPV, cervical cancer, therapeutic vaccine, immunotherapy..