Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1/Adeno-Associated Virus Hybrid Vectors
Anna Paula de Oliveira, Cornel Fraefel*
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2010
First Page: 109
Last Page: 122
Publisher Id: TOVJ-4-109
Article History:Received Date: 12/12/2009
Revision Received Date: 12/1/2010
Acceptance Date: 13/1/2010
Electronic publication date: 18/6/2010
Collection year: 2010
open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicons can accommodate foreign DNA of any size up to 150 kbp and, therefore, allow extensive combinations of genetic elements. Genomic sequences as well as cDNA, large transcriptional regulatory sequences for cell type-specific expression, multiple transgenes, and genetic elements from other viruses to create hybrid vectors may be inserted in a modular fashion. Hybrid amplicons use genetic elements from HSV-1 that allow replication and packaging of the vector DNA into HSV-1 virions, and genetic elements from other viruses that either direct integration of transgene sequences into the host genome or allow episomal maintenance of the vector. Thus, the advantages of the HSV-1 amplicon system, including large transgene capacity, broad host range, strong nuclear localization, and availability of helper virus-free packaging systems are retained and combined with those of heterologous viral elements that confer genetic stability to the vector DNA. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has the unique capability of integrating its genome into a specific site, designated AAVS1, on human chromosome 19. The AAV rep gene and the inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) that flank the AAV genome are sufficient for this process. HSV-1 amplicons have thus been designed that contain the rep gene and a transgene cassette flanked by AAV ITRs. These HSV/AAV hybrid vectors direct site-specific integration of transgene sequences into AAVS1 and support long-term transgene expression.