Understanding Human Coronavirus HCoV-NL63



Sahar Abdul-Rasool1, §, Burtram C Fielding*, 2, §
1 Anatomy Cluster, Department of Medical Biosciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape, South Africa
2 Molecular Virology Research Laboratory, Medical Microbiology Cluster, Department of Medical Biosciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Modderdam Road, Bellville, Western Cape 7535, South Africa


Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
19
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 101
Abstract HTML Views: 28
PDF Downloads: 18
Total Views/Downloads: 147
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 75
Abstract HTML Views: 19
PDF Downloads: 14
Total Views/Downloads: 108



© Abdul-Rasool and Fielding; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Molecular Virology Research Laboratory, Medical Microbiology Cluster, Department of Medical Biosciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Modderdam Road, Bellville, Western Cape 7535, South Africa; Tel: +27-21-9593620; Fax: +27-21-9593125; E-mail: bfielding@uwc.ac.za
§ These authors made equal contribution.


Abstract

Even though coronavirus infection of humans is not normally associated with severe diseases, the identification of the coronavirus responsible for the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome showed that highly pathogenic coronaviruses can enter the human population. Shortly thereafter, in Holland in 2004, another novel human coronavirus (HCoV-NL63) was isolated from a seven-month old infant suffering from respiratory symptoms. This virus has subsequently been identified in various countries, indicating a worldwide distribution. HCoV-NL63 has been shown to infect mainly children and the immunocommpromised, who presented with either mild upper respiratory symptoms (cough, fever and rhinorrhoea) or more serious lower respiratory tract involvement such as bronchiolitis and croup, which was observed mainly in younger children. In fact, HCoV-NL63 is the aetiological agent for up to 10% of all respiratory diseases. This review summarizes recent findings of human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 infections, including isolation and identification, phylogeny and taxonomy, genome structure and transcriptional regulation, transmission and pathogenesis, and detection and diagnosis.

Keywords: Human coronavirus HCOV-NL63, clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis..