Role of Filopodia in HSV-1 Entry into Zebrafish 3-O-Sulfotransferase-3-Expressing Cells
Samiksha Choudhary 1, Lorrie Burnham 2, Jeffrey M Thompson 3, Deepak Shukla 4, Vaibhav Tiwari*, 5
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2013
First Page: 41
Last Page: 48
Publisher Id: TOVJ-7-41
Article History:Received Date: 20/11/2012
Revision Received Date: 11/1/2013
Acceptance Date: 23/1/2013
Electronic publication date: 5 /4/2013
Collection year: 2013
open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) modified by zebrafish (ZF) encoded glucosaminyl 3-O sulfotransferase-3 (3-OST-3) generate a receptor for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry and spread. In order to elucidate the mechanism by which HSV-1 enters into ZF-3-OST-3 cells, we investigated the mode of viral entry.
Under high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), actin cytoskeleton changes were observed by a dramatic increase in the number of filopodia formed during early interactions of HSV-1 with the target cells. While the increase in number was common among all the infected cells, the highest numbers of filopodia was observed in cells expressing the 3-OST-3 modified form of heparan sulfate (HS) encoded either by human or ZF. The levels of viral infection and filopodia induction were reduced with the actin polymerization inhibitors, Cytochalasin-D and Lantriculin B, suggesting an important role for actin reorganization during ZF-3-OST-3 mediated HSV-1 entry. Supporting an interesting possibility of filopodia usage during HSV-1 spread, pre-treatment of cytochalasin D in ZF-3-OST-3 cells drastically reduced virus glycoprotein induced cell fusion.
Taken together, our results provide new evidence on the involvement of filopodia during HSV-1 infection of ZF-3-OST-3 cells and confirm a role for modified heparan sulfate in cytoskeleton rearrangement during HSV-1 entry.