Molecular Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Among Infants with Congenital Anomalies in Khartoum State, Sudan

Maha G. Ebrahim1, Aisha S. Ali2, Mohamed O. Mustafa3, Dalal F. Musa4, Abdel Rahim M. El Hussein3, Isam M. Elkhidir5, Khalid A. Enan3, *
1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, National University, Sudan
3 Departmemt of Virology, Central Laboratory, Ministry of Science and Communication, Khartoum, Sudan
4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Sudan University Science and Technology, Sudan
5 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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© Ebrahim et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the (, which permits unrestricted, noncommercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Virology, Central Laboratory- Ministry of Science & Communication, Sudan; Tel: +249-912651103; Fax: +249155183855-P.O.Box: 7099; E-mail:


Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection still represents the most common potentially serious viral complication in humans and is a major cause of congenital anomalies in infants. This study is aimed to detect HCMV in infants with congenital anomalies.

Study subjects consisted of infants born with neural tube defect, hydrocephalus and microcephaly.

Fifty serum specimens (20 males, 30 females) were collected from different hospitals in Khartoum State. The sera were investigated for cytomegalovirus specific immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for Cytomegalovirus DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Out of the 50 sera tested, one patient’s (2%) sample showed HCMV IgM, but with no detectable DNA, other 4(8.2 %) sera were positive for HCMV DNA but with no detectable IgM.

Various diagnostic techniques should be considered to evaluate HCMV disease and routine screening for HCMV should be introduced for pregnant women in this setting. It is vital to initiate further research work with many samples from different area to assess prevalence and characterize HCMV and evaluate its maternal health implications.

Keywords: Congenital anomalies, ELISA, HCMV, PCR, Sudan.